Nov. Regeln und Varianten des Kartenspiels Rommé. Diese Seite beschreibt das grundlegende Spiel. Jeder Spieler, der an der Reihe ist, nimmt. Lernen Sie hier die Spielregeln für das beliebte Kartenspiel Romme (Rummy, Spiele um Geld spielen > Romme > Romme Regeln / Romme Spielanleitung. Nov. Regeln und Varianten des Kartenspiels Rommé. Diese Seite beschreibt das grundlegende Spiel. Jeder Spieler, der an der Reihe ist, nimmt.
Ulster loyalist opponents of Home Rule formed the Ulster Volunteers and their opponents in the rest of Ireland set up the Irish Volunteers in Both paramilitary groups imported arms, and by mid it seemed likely that an Irish civil war would erupt, with people's allegiances based largely, if not primarily, on their parents' religions.
The Protestants' fears about a Dublin Parliament may seem to have been exaggerated at the time, but the history of Ireland since independence has, on the whole, tended to suggest that they were not.
Indeed, occasional speeches by leading Nationalists designed to allay Liberal fears that "Home Rule really would be Rome Rule," were in clearly making some Catholic churchmen anxious.
The end and the reward of Home Rule commanded the sympathy of all of us, but the question is: Are they not as likely, or more likely, to have as their reward Secularism in the Schools?
It was 'our people', neither Rome nor the Protestant ascendancy, who should rule in Ireland. It so happened that Pius X was Pope in —, the period when the policies of Ulster unionism were cast.
His general policy of church supremacy led to antagonism across Europe between secular governments and his Church.
Unlike other Catholic churches in Europe, such as in Spain or Portugal, the Irish Church was no longer semi-autonomous but had been assigned in to the Congregation of Missions in Rome.
As a result the Irish Church could be governed under canon law by the relatively informal motu proprio system. Concern about this led to proposals for safeguards in the debates that led to the Home Rule Act Loyalists were unspecific about the likely effect of "Rome Rule", but it became an effective slogan in maintaining the loyalty of the Protestant working class, and contributed to the lack of trust which caused the near-civil war prior to the Third Home Rule Act and the Partition of Ireland during — From the Easter Rising in on a number of prominent Nationalist Protestants or lapsed Catholics even felt the need to conform to be considered fully involved in the nationalist movement.
O'Kelly wrote to Pope Benedict XV in in terms suggesting that the war was a part of a long religious struggle, and identifying the Irish Republic with "Catholic Ireland".
The letter was not published until recently; it included:. While this in no way shakes their adherence to the Faith, they naturally resent the audacity of an officially heretical government approaching the Holy See on occasions through Catholic or non-Catholic channels, seeking to procure, on pretexts of faith and morals, the condemnation of Catholic Ireland.
It is true that the latter happens to be weak and England strong; hence England tries to turn into an instrument of further oppression a force on which Ireland should obviously have paramount claims and for which Ireland suffered and fought and bled while the oppressor repudiated, blasphemed and persecuted it.
After Rome Rule was occasionally used as a disparaging term by anti-clerical socialists in Ireland who opposed the Church's views on social policy.
The slogan continued to be used for decades in unionist politics in Northern Ireland , and explains the visceral outburst by Ian Paisley in the European Parliament against the presence of Pope John Paul II on 12 October From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
But, in an overwhelmingly Catholic Ireland, the old Unionist taunt that 'Home Rule would mean Rome Rule' had no force because Rome Rule had become more a cause for pride than for shame.
In Pat Rabbitte 's words, the Vatican seems "to misunderstand the earthquake they have set off in [Irish] society.
Whatever happens, it is the end of the age of deference. The Green Flag Vol. Peace and War — Oxford: Clarendon Press, , p.
Carson — the Man who divided Ireland , p. A History of Ulster. III Orange Drums, pp. The Modernisation of Irish Society, p.
Movements for Reform Ch. Retrieved from " https: EngvarB from November Use dmy dates from November Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 3 December , at Darf ein Spieler auch erst dann, nachdem er schon mit 40 Augen ausgelegt hat.
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Wenn ein anderer Spieler die auf den offenen Stapel abgelegt Karte haben möchte, muss er klopfen. Er kann die Karte nehmen, wenn der aktuelle Spieler sie nicht möchte, muss dafür aber zusätzlich 2 weitere Karten vom Kartenstapel aufnehmen.
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Alle anderen Spieler zählen die Augenwerte ihrer übrigen Karten als Minuspunkte. Hier zählt ein Joker auch wieder 20 Augen. Die beschriebene ist eine.
Klärt vor Beginn des Spiels die Regeln untereinander, um Streit zu vermeiden. Dogs Royal — Unsere Nr. Ab 8 Jahren mit Spieler spielbar. Ein so erworbener Joker muss direkt wieder an anderer Stelle eingesetzt werden.
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Rome regeln -Wenn ein Spieler ausgelegt hat: Die Spieler sehen sich ihre Karten an und sortieren sie. Es gibt zwei Arten von Meldungen: Sollte der Spieler eine Karte vom Ablagestapel gezogen haben, so darf er nicht die gleiche Karte am Ende seines Spielzuges wieder dorthin zurück legen, sodass der Stapel unverändert für den nächsten Spieler wäre. Die Karten werden einzeln gegeben und nach dem Geben wird die nächste Karte offen auf den Tisch gelegt und bildet den Anfang des Ablagestapels. Spiel Bei zwei Spielern wird immer abwechselnd gespielt, und es beginnt der Nicht-Geber mit dem Spiel. Das Kartenspiel wird mit zwei 52er Blättern und 6 Jokern gespielt.
The rising trend in population growth continued until the mids, when the comune had more than 2. After that, population started to decline slowly as inhabitants began to move to nearby suburbs of Rome.
Rome constitutes a comune speciale , named "Roma Capitale" ,  and is the largest both in terms of land area and population among the 8, comuni of Italy.
It is governed by a mayor and a city council. The seat of the comune is the Palazzo Senatorio on the Capitoline Hill , the historic seat of the city government.
The local administration in Rome is commonly referred to as "Campidoglio" , the Italian name of the hill. Since , the city has been divided into administrative areas, called municipi sing.
Each municipio is governed by a president and a council of twenty-five members who are elected by its residents every five years. The municipi frequently cross the boundaries of the traditional, non-administrative divisions of the city.
The municipi were originally 20, then Rome is also divided into differing types of non-administrative units. The historic centre is divided into 22 rioni , all of which are located within the Aurelian Walls except Prati and Borgo.
These originate from the Regiones of ancient Rome , which evolved in the Middle Ages into the medieval rioni. A new subdivision of the city under Napoleon was ephemeral, and there were no sensible changes in the organisation of the city until , when Rome became the third capital of Italy.
The needs of the new capital led to an explosion both in the urbanisation and in the population within and outside the Aurelian walls.
In , a fifteenth rione, Esquilino , was created on the newly urbanised zone of Monti. Afterward, for the new administrative subdivisions of the city the name "quartiere" was used.
Today all the rioni are part of the first Municipio, which therefore coincides completely with the historical city Centro Storico.
Rome is the principal town of the Metropolitan City of Rome , operative since 1 January The Metropolitan City replaced the old province , which included the city's metropolitan area and extends further north until Civitavecchia.
The Metropolitan City of Rome is the largest by area in Italy. Moreover, the city is also the capital of the Lazio region. Rome is the national capital of Italy and is the seat of the Italian Government.
The official residences of the President of the Italian Republic and the Italian Prime Minister , the seats of both houses of the Italian Parliament and that of the Italian Constitutional Court are located in the historic centre.
The state ministries are spread out around the city; these include the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is located in Palazzo della Farnesina near the Olympic stadium.
Rome is in the Lazio region of central Italy on the Tiber Italian: The original settlement developed on hills that faced onto a ford beside the Tiber Island , the only natural ford of the river in this area.
The Rome of the Kings was built on seven hills: Modern Rome is also crossed by another river, the Aniene , which flows into the Tiber north of the historic centre.
Originally, these consisted of the Servian Wall , which was built twelve years after the Gaulish sack of the city in BC. This contained most of the Esquiline and Caelian hills, as well as the whole of the other five.
Rome outgrew the Servian Wall , but no more walls were constructed until almost years later, when, in AD, Emperor Aurelian began building the Aurelian Walls.
The comune covers an area roughly three times the total area within the Raccordo and is comparable in area to the entire metropolitan cities of Milan and Naples , and to an area six times the size of the territory of these cities.
It also includes considerable areas of abandoned marsh land which is suitable neither for agriculture nor for urban development.
As a consequence, the density of the comune is not that high, its territory being divided between highly urbanised areas and areas designated as parks, nature reserves , and for agricultural use.
Rome has a Mediterranean climate Köppen climate classification: Csa ,  with cool, humid winters and warm, dry summers.
Snowfall is rare but not unheard of, with light snow or flurries occurring almost every winter, generally without accumulation, and major snowfalls approximately once every 5 years most recently in , previously It had an area of about hectares acres and an estimated population of 35, Other sources suggest the population was just under , from — BC.
The republic included the city itself and the immediate surroundings. Other sources suggest a population of , in BC.
It surpassed , in BC. The size of the city at the time of the Emperor Augustus is a matter of speculation, with estimates based on grain distribution, grain imports, aqueduct capacity, city limits, population density, census reports, and assumptions about the number of unreported women, children and slaves providing a very wide range.
Glenn Storey estimates , people, Whitney Oates estimates 1. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire , the city's population declined to less than 50, people.
It continued to stagnate or shrink until the Renaissance. This increased to , by the eve of World War I. The Fascist regime of Mussolini tried to block an excessive demographic rise of the city, but failed to prevent it from reaching one million people by the early s.
A construction boom also created a large number of suburbs during the s and s. In mid, there were 2,, residents in the city proper, while some 4.
Minors children ages 18 and younger totalled This compares with the Italian average of The average age of a Roman resident is 43 compared to the Italian average of In the five years between and , the population of Rome grew by 6.
The urban area of Rome extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 3.
About half of the immigrant population consists of those of various other European origins chiefly Romanian, Polish, Ukrainian, and Albanian numbering a combined total of , or 4.
The Esquilino rione , off Termini Railway Station , has evolved into a largely immigrant neighbourhood. It is perceived as Rome's Chinatown. Immigrants from more than a hundred different countries reside there.
A commercial district, Esquilino contains restaurants featuring many kinds of international cuisine. There are wholesale clothes shops. Of the 1, or so commercial premises operating in the district are Chinese-owned; around are run by immigrants from other countries around the world; are owned by Italians.
Much like the rest of Italy, Rome is predominantly Roman Catholic , and the city has been an important centre of religion and pilgrimage for centuries, the base of the ancient Roman religion with the pontifex maximus and later the seat of the Vatican and the pope.
Before the arrival of the Christians in Rome, the Religio Romana literally, the "Roman Religion" was the major religion of the city in classical antiquity.
The first gods held sacred by the Romans were Jupiter , the most high, and Mars , god of war, and father of Rome's twin founders, Romulus and Remus , according to tradition.
Other gods and goddesses such as Vesta and Minerva were honoured. Rome was also the base of several mystery cults, such as Mithraism.
Peter's Basilica was constructed in AD. Despite some interruptions such as the Avignon papacy , Rome has for centuries been the home of the Roman Catholic Church and the Bishop of Rome , otherwise known as the Pope.
Despite the fact that Rome is home to the Vatican City and St. Peter's Basilica, Rome's cathedral is the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran , located to the south-east of the city-centre.
There are around churches in Rome in total, aside from the cathedral itself, some others of note include: There are also the ancient Catacombs of Rome underneath the city.
In recent years, there has been a significant growth in Rome's Muslim community, mainly due to immigration from North African and Middle Eastern countries into the city.
Since the end of the Roman Republic, Rome is also the centre of an important Jewish community,  which was once based in Trastevere , and later in the Roman Ghetto.
There lies also the major synagogue in Rome, the Tempio Maggiore. Peter's Basilica , the Apostolic Palace , the Sistine Chapel , and museums were built, along with various other buildings.
The area was part of the Roman rione of Borgo until When the Lateran Treaty of that created the Vatican state was being prepared, the boundaries of the proposed territory were influenced by the fact that much of it was all but enclosed by this loop.
For some tracts of the frontier, there was no wall, but the line of certain buildings supplied part of the boundary, and for a small part of the frontier a modern wall was constructed.
The territory includes Saint Peter's Square , separated from the territory of Italy only by a white line along the limit of the square, where it borders Piazza Pio XII.
This grand approach was designed by architects Piacentini and Spaccarelli, for want of Benito Mussolini and in accordance with the church, after the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty.
According to the Lateran Treaty , certain properties of the Holy See located in Italian territory, most notably the Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo and the major basilicas , enjoy extraterritorial status similar to that of foreign embassies.
Rome has been a major Christian pilgrimage site since the Middle Ages. People from all over the Christian world visit Vatican City, within the city of Rome, the seat of the papacy.
The Pope was the most influential figure during the Middle Ages. Apart from brief periods as an independent city during the Middle Ages , Rome kept its status as Papal capital and "holy city" for centuries, even when the Papacy briefly relocated to Avignon — Catholics believe that the Vatican is the last resting place of St.
Pilgrimages to Rome can involve visits to a large number of sites, both within Vatican City and in Italian territory. A popular stopping point is the Pilate's stairs: Helena in the 4th Century.
For centuries, the Scala Santa has attracted Christian pilgrims who wished to honour the Passion of Jesus. Object of pilgrimage are also several catacombs built in the Roman age, in which Christians prayed, buried their dead and performed worship during periods of persecution, and various national churches among them San Luigi dei francesi and Santa Maria dell'Anima , or churches associated with individual religious orders, such as the Jesuit Churches of Jesus and Sant'Ignazio.
Traditionally, pilgrims in Rome and Roman citizens thanking God for a grace should visit by foot the seven pilgrim churches Italian: Le sette chiese in 24 hours.
This custom, mandatory for each pilgrim in the Middle Ages, was codified in the 16th century by Saint Philip Neri. The seven churches are the four major Basilicas St Peter in Vatican , St Paul outside the Walls , St John in Lateran and Santa Maria Maggiore , while the other three are San Lorenzo fuori le mura a palaeochristian Basilica , Santa Croce in Gerusalemme a church founded by Helena , the mother of Constantine, which hosts fragments of wood attributed to the holy cross and San Sebastiano fuori le mura which lies on the Appian Way and is built above Roman catacombs.
Rome's architecture over the centuries has greatly developed, especially from the Classical and Imperial Roman styles to modern Fascist architecture.
Rome was for a period one of the world's main epicentres of classical architecture, developing new forms such as the arch , the dome and the vault.
Originally capable of seating 60, spectators, it was used for gladiatorial combat. The medieval popular quarters of the city, situated mainly around the Capitol, were largely demolished between the end of the 19th century and the fascist period, but many notable buildings still remain.
Basilicas dating from the Christian antiquity include Saint Mary Major and Saint Paul outside the Walls the latter largely rebuilt in the 19th century , both housing precious 4th century AD mosaics.
Notable later notable medieval mosaics and frescoes can be also found in the churches of Santa Maria in Trastevere , Santi Quattro Coronati , and Santa Prassede.
Secular buildings include a number of towers, the largest being the Torre delle Milizie and the Torre dei Conti , both next the Roman Forum, and the huge outdoor stairway leading up to the basilica of Santa Maria in Ara Coeli.
Rome was a major world centre of the Renaissance , second only to Florence, and was profoundly affected by the movement. Among others, a masterpiece of Renaissance architecture in Rome is the Piazza del Campidoglio by Michelangelo.
Many of the famous city's squares — some huge, majestic and often adorned with obelisks , some small and picturesque — got their present shape during the Renaissance and Baroque.
Other notable 17th-century baroque palaces are the Palazzo Madama , now the seat of the Italian Senate and the Palazzo Montecitorio , now the seat of the Chamber of Deputies of Italy.
In , Rome became the capital city of the new Kingdom of Italy. During this time, neoclassicism , a building style influenced by the architecture of antiquity , became a predominant influence in Roman architecture.
During this period, many great palaces in neoclassical styles were built to host ministries, embassies, and other governing agencies.
The Fascist regime that ruled in Italy between and had its showcase in Rome. Mussolini allowed the construction of new roads and piazzas, resulting in the destruction of roads, houses, churches and palaces erected during the papal rule.
The main activities during his government were: Architecturally, Fascism favored the most modern movements, such as Rationalism.
Parallel to this, in the s another style emerged, named "Stile Novecento", characterised by its links with ancient Roman architecture.
This new quarter emerged as a compromise between Rationalist and Novecento architects, the former being led by Giuseppe Pagano.
The EUR was originally conceived for the world exhibition , and was called "E. The world exhibition, however, never took place because Italy entered the Second World War in , and the realised buildings were partly destroyed in during the fighting between Italian and German army after the armistice and later abandoned.
Also, the Palazzo della Farnesina , the current seat of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs , was designed in in pure Fascist style.
Public parks and nature reserves cover a large area in Rome, and the city has one of the largest areas of green space among European capitals.
While most of the parks surrounding the villas were destroyed during the building boom of the late 19th century, some of them remain. Villa Doria Pamphili is west of the Gianicolo hill comprising some 1.
Also on the Gianicolo hill there is Villa Sciarra , with playgrounds for children and shaded walking areas. The old Roman hippodrome Circus Maximus is another large green space: Nearby is the lush Villa Celimontana , close to the gardens surrounding the Baths of Caracalla.
The Villa Borghese garden is the best known large green space in Rome, with famous art galleries among its shaded walks.
Noteworthy is also the Pine wood of Castelfusano , near Ostia. Rome also has a number of regional parks of much more recent origin including the Pineto Regional Park and the Appian Way Regional Park.
There are also nature reserves at Marcigliana and at Tenuta di Castelporziano. Rome is a city famous for its numerous fountains, built in all different styles, from Classical and Medieval, to Baroque and Neoclassical.
The city has had fountains for more than two thousand years, and they have provided drinking water and decorated the piazzas of Rome.
During the Roman Empire , in 98 AD, according to Sextus Julius Frontinus , the Roman consul who was named curator aquarum or guardian of the water of the city, Rome had nine aqueducts which fed 39 monumental fountains and public basins, not counting the water supplied to the Imperial household, baths, and owners of private villas.
Each of the major fountains was connected to two different aqueducts, in case one was shut down for service. During the 17th and 18th century, the Roman popes reconstructed other ruined Roman aqueducts and built new display fountains to mark their termini, launching the golden age of the Roman fountain.
The fountains of Rome, like the paintings of Rubens , were expressions of the new style of Baroque art. They were crowded with allegorical figures, and filled with emotion and movement.
In these fountains, sculpture became the principal element, and the water was used simply to animate and decorate the sculptures. They, like baroque gardens, were "a visual representation of confidence and power".
Rome is well known for its statues but, in particular, the talking statues of Rome. These are usually ancient statues which have become popular soapboxes for political and social discussion, and places for people to often satirically voice their opinions.
There are two main talking statues: Most of these statues are ancient Roman or classical, and most of them also depict mythical gods, ancient people or legendary figures; il Pasquino represents Menelaus , Abbot Luigi is an unknown Roman magistrate, il Babuino is supposed to be Silenus , Marforio represents Oceanus , Madama Lucrezia is a bust of Isis , and il Facchino is the only non-Roman statue, created in , and not representing anyone in particular.
They are often, due to their status, covered with placards or graffiti expressing political ideas and points of view. Other statues in the city, which are not related to the talking statues, include those of the Ponte Sant'Angelo, or several monuments scattered across the city, such as that to Giordano Bruno in the Campo de'Fiori.
The city hosts eight ancient Egyptian and five ancient Roman obelisks , together with a number of more modern obelisks; there was also formerly until an ancient Ethiopian obelisk in Rome.
Moreover, the centre of Rome hosts also Trajan 's and Antonine Column , two ancient Roman columns with spiral relief.
The city of Rome contains numerous famous bridges which cross the Tiber. The only bridge to remain unaltered until today from the classical age is Ponte dei Quattro Capi , which connects the Isola Tiberina with the left bank.
Considering Ponte Nomentano , also built during ancient Rome, which crosses the Aniene , currently there are five ancient Roman bridges still remaining in the city.
Most of the city's public bridges were built in Classical or Renaissance style, but also in Baroque, Neoclassical and Modern styles.
Rome has extensive amount of ancient catacombs, or underground burial places under or near the city, of which there are at least forty, some discovered only in recent decades.
Though most famous for Christian burials, they include pagan and Jewish burials, either in separate catacombs or mixed together. The first large-scale catacombs were excavated from the 2nd century onwards.
Originally they were carved through tuff , a soft volcanic rock , outside the boundaries of the city, because Roman law forbade burial places within city limits.
Currently, maintenance of the catacombs is in the hands of the Papacy which has invested in the Salesians of Don Bosco the supervision of the Catacombs of St.
Callixtus on the outskirts of Rome. As the capital of Italy, Rome hosts all the principal institutions of the nation, including the Presidency of the Republic, the government and its single Ministeri , the Parliament, the main judicial Courts, and the diplomatic representatives of all the countries for the states of Italy and Vatican City.
Many international institutions are located in Rome, notably cultural and scientific ones, such as the American Institute, the British School, the French Academy, the Scandinavian Institutes, and the German Archaeological Institute.
Although the economy of Rome is characterised by the absence of heavy industry and it is largely dominated by services , high-technology companies IT, aerospace, defence, telecommunications , research, construction and commercial activities especially banking , and the huge development of tourism are very dynamic and extremely important to its economy.
Rome's international airport, Fiumicino , is the largest in Italy, and the city hosts the head offices of the vast majority of the major Italian companies, as well as the headquarters of three of the world's largest companies: Enel , Eni , and Telecom Italia.
Universities, national radio and television and the movie industry in Rome are also important parts of the economy: The city is also a centre for banking and insurance as well as electronics, energy, transport, and aerospace industries.
Numerous international companies and agencies headquarters, government ministries, conference centres, sports venues, and museums are located in Rome's principal business districts: Rome is a nationwide and major international centre for higher education, containing numerous academies, colleges and universities.
It boasts a large variety of academies and colleges, and has always been a major worldwide intellectual and educational centre, especially during Ancient Rome and the Renaissance , along with Florence.
Rome has a large number of universities and colleges. Its first university, La Sapienza founded in , is one of the largest in the world, with more than , students attending; in it ranked as Europe's 33rd best university  and in the Sapienza University of Rome ranked as the 62nd in the world and the top in Italy in its World University Rankings.
Tor Vergata in , and Roma Tre in Rome's major libraries include: There are also a large number of specialist libraries attached to various foreign cultural institutes in Rome, among them that of the American Academy in Rome , the French Academy in Rome and the Bibliotheca Hertziana — Max Planck Institute of Art History , a German library, often noted for excellence in the arts and sciences; .
Rome is an important centre for music, and it has an intense musical scene, including several prestigious music conservatories and theatres.
It hosts the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia founded in , for which new concert halls have been built in the new Parco della Musica , one of the largest musical venues in the world.
Rome also has an opera house, the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma , as well as several minor musical institutions. Rome has also had a major impact in music history.
The Roman School was a group of composers of predominantly church music, which were active in the city during the 16th and 17th centuries, therefore spanning the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras.
The term also refers to the music they produced. Many of the composers had a direct connection to the Vatican and the papal chapel , though they worked at several churches; stylistically they are often contrasted with the Venetian School of composers, a concurrent movement which was much more progressive.
By far the most famous composer of the Roman School is Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina , whose name has been associated for four hundred years with smooth, clear, polyphonic perfection.
However, there were other composers working in Rome, and in a variety of styles and forms. Rome today is one of the most important tourist destinations of the world, due to the incalculable immensity of its archaeological and artistic treasures, as well as for the charm of its unique traditions, the beauty of its panoramic views, and the majesty of its magnificent "villas" parks.
Among the most significant resources are the many museums — Musei Capitolini, the Vatican Museums and the Galleria Borghese and others dedicated to modern and contemporary art — aqueducts , fountains , churches, palaces , historical buildings, the monuments and ruins of the Roman Forum , and the Catacombs.
Rome is a major archaeological hub, and one of the world's main centres of archaeological research. There are numerous cultural and research institutes located in the city, such as the American Academy in Rome ,  and The Swedish Institute at Rome.
The Colosseum , arguably one of Rome's most iconic archaeological sites, is regarded as a wonder of the world.
Rome contains a vast and impressive collection of art, sculpture, fountains , mosaics , frescos , and paintings, from all different periods.
Rome first became a major artistic centre during ancient Rome, with forms of important Roman art such as architecture , painting, sculpture and mosaic work.
Metal-work , coin die and gem engraving, ivory carvings , figurine glass, pottery , and book illustrations are considered to be 'minor' forms of Roman artwork.
Rome became one of Europe's major centres of Renaissance artwork, second only to Florence , and able to compare to other major cities and cultural centres, such as Paris and Venice.
The city was affected greatly by the baroque , and Rome became the home of numerous artists and architects, such as Bernini , Caravaggio , Carracci , Borromini and Cortona.
Rome hosted a great number of neoclassical and rococo artists, such as Pannini and Bernardo Bellotto. Today, the city is a major artistic centre, with numerous art institutes  and museums.
Rome has a growing stock of contemporary and modern art and architecture. Maxxi  features a campus dedicated to culture, experimental research laboratories, international exchange and study and research.
Rome is also widely recognised as a world fashion capital. Although not as important as Milan, Rome is the fourth most important centre for fashion in the world, according to the Global Language Monitor after Milan , New York, and Paris, and beating London.
Rome's cuisine has evolved through centuries and periods of social, cultural, and political changes.
Rome became a major gastronomical centre during the ancient Age. Ancient Roman cuisine was highly influenced by Ancient Greek culture, and after, the empire's enormous expansion exposed Romans to many new, provincial culinary habits and cooking techniques.
Later, during the Renaissance , Rome became well known as a centre of high-cuisine, since some of the best chefs of the time worked for the popes.
An example of this was Bartolomeo Scappi , who was a chef working for Pius IV in the Vatican kitchen, and he acquired fame in when his cookbook Opera dell'arte del cucinare was published.
In the book he lists approximately recipes of the Renaissance cuisine and describes cooking techniques and tools, giving the first known picture of a fork.
Examples of Roman dishes include " Saltimbocca alla Romana " — a veal cutlet, Roman-style; topped with raw ham and sage and simmered with white wine and butter; " Carciofi alla romana " — artichokes Roman-style; outer leaves removed, stuffed with mint, garlic, breadcrumbs and braised; " Carciofi alla giudia " — artichokes fried in olive oil, typical of Roman Jewish cooking; outer leaves removed, stuffed with mint, garlic, breadcrumbs and braised; " Spaghetti alla carbonara " — spaghetti with bacon , eggs and pecorino , and " Gnocchi di semolino alla romana " — semolina dumpling, Roman-style, to name but a few.
Although associated today only with Latin, ancient Rome was in fact multilingual. In highest antiquity, Sabine tribes shared the area of what is today Rome with Latin tribes.
The Sabine language was one of the Italic group of ancient Italian languages, along with Etruscan, which would have been the main language of the last three kings who ruled the city till the founding of the Republic in BC.
Urganilla, or Plautia Urgulanilla , wife of Emperor Claudius, is thought to have been a speaker of Etruscan many centuries after this date, according to Suetonius' entry on Claudius.
However Latin, in various evolving forms, was the main language of classical Rome, but as the city had immigrants, slaves, residents, ambassadors from many parts of the world it was also multilingual.
Many educated Romans also spoke Greek, and there was a large Greek, Syriac and Jewish population in parts of Rome from well before the Empire.
Latin evolved during the Middle Ages into a new language, the " volgare ". The latter emerged as the confluence of various regional dialects, among which the Tuscan dialect predominated, but the population of Rome also developed its own dialect, the Romanesco.
The Romanesco spoken during the Middle Ages was more like a southern Italian dialect, very close to the Neapolitan language in Campania. The influence of the Florentine culture during the renaissance , and above all, the immigration to Rome of many Florentines following the two Medici Popes Leo X and Clement VII , caused a major shift in the dialect, which began to resemble more the Tuscan varieties.
This remained largely confined to Rome until the 19th century, but then expanded to other zones of Lazio Civitavecchia , Latina and others , from the beginning of the 20th century, thanks to the rising population of Rome and to improving transportation systems.
As a consequence of education and media like radio and television, Romanesco became more similar to standard Italian.
Dialectal literature in the traditional form of Romanesco includes the works of such authors as Giuseppe Gioachino Belli one of the most important Italian poets altogether , Trilussa and Cesare Pascarella.
It is worth remembering though that Romanesco was a " lingua vernacola " vernacular language , meaning that for centuries, it did not have a written form but it was only spoken by the population.
Rome's historic contribution to language in a worldwide sense is much more extensive however. Through the process of Romanization , the peoples of Italy, Gallia , the Iberian Peninsula and Dacia developed languages which derive directly from Latin and were adopted in large areas of the world, all through cultural influence, colonization and migration.
Moreover, also modern English, because of the Norman Conquest , borrowed a large percentage of its vocabulary from the Latin language. The Roman or Latin alphabet is the most widely used writing system in the world used by the greatest number of languages.
Rome has long hosted artistic communities, foreign resident communities and a large number of foreign religious students or pilgrims and so has always been a multilingual city.
Today because of mass tourism, many languages are used in servicing tourism, especially English which is widely known in tourist areas, and the city hosts large numbers of immigrants and so has many multilingual immigrant areas.
Association football is the most popular sport in Rome, as in the rest of the country. The latter took place in the Olympic Stadium , which is also the shared home stadium for local Serie A clubs S.
Lazio , founded in , and A. Roma , founded in , whose rivalry in the Derby della Capitale has become a staple of Roman sports culture.
Roma , and Alessandro Nesta for S. Atletico Roma is a minor team that played in First Division until ; its home stadium was Stadio Flaminio. Rome hosted the Summer Olympics , with great success, using many ancient sites such as the Villa Borghese and the Thermae of Caracalla as venues.
For the Olympic Games many new structures were created, notably the new large Olympic Stadium which was also enlarged and renewed to host qualification and the final match of the FIFA World Cup , the Villaggio Olimpico Olympic Village, created to host the athletes and redeveloped after the games as a residential district , ecc.
Rome made a bid to host the Summer Olympics but it was withdrawn before the deadline for applicant files. Further, Rome hosted the EuroBasket and is home to the internationally recognized basketball team Virtus Roma.
Rugby union is gaining wider acceptance. Until the Stadio Flaminio was the home stadium for the Italy national rugby union team , which has been playing in the Six Nations Championship since The team now plays home games at the Stadio Olimpico because the Stadio Flaminio needs works of renovation in order to improve both its capacity and safety.
Rome is home to local rugby union teams such as Rugby Roma founded in and winner of five Italian championships, the latter in — , Unione Rugby Capitolina and S.
Lazio rugby union branch of the multisport club S. Cycling was popular in the post-World War II period, although its popularity has faded. Rome has hosted the final portion of the Giro d'Italia three times, in , , and Rome is also home to other sports teams, including volleyball M.
Roma Volley , handball or waterpolo. Rome is at the centre of the radial network of roads that roughly follow the lines of the ancient Roman roads which began at the Capitoline Hill and connected Rome with its empire.
Due to its location in the centre of the Italian peninsula, Rome is the principal railway node for central Italy. Rome's main railway station, Termini , is one of the largest railway stations in Europe and the most heavily used in Italy, with around thousand travellers passing through every day.
The second-largest station in the city, Roma Tiburtina , has been redeveloped as a high-speed rail terminus. As well as frequent high speed day trains to all major Italian cities, Rome is linked nightly by 'boat train' sleeper services to Sicily, and internationally by overnight sleeper services to Munich and Vienna by ÖBB Austrian railways.
Rome is served by three airports. The intercontinental Leonardo da Vinci International Airport is Italy's chief airport, is located within the nearby Fiumicino , south-west of Rome.
The older Rome Ciampino Airport is a joint civilian and military airport. It is commonly referred to as "Ciampino Airport", as it is located beside Ciampino , south-east of Rome.
Although the city has its own quarter on the Mediterranean Sea Lido di Ostia , this has only a marina and a small channel-harbour for fishing boats.
The main harbour which serves Rome is Port of Civitavecchia , located about 62 kilometres 39 miles northwest of the city. The city suffers from traffic problems largely due to this radial street pattern, making it difficult for Romans to move easily from the vicinity of one of the radial roads to another without going into the historic centre or using the ring-road.
These problems are not helped by the limited size of Rome's metro system when compared to other cities of similar size.
In addition, Rome has only 21 taxis for every 10, inhabitants, far below other major European cities. More recently, heavy night-time traffic in Trastevere , Testaccio and San Lorenzo has led to the creation of night-time ZTLs in those districts.
A 3-line metro system called the Metropolitana operates in Rome. Construction on the first branch started in the s.
The line had been planned to quickly connect the main railway station with the newly planned E42 area in the southern suburbs, where the World Fair was supposed to be held.
The event never took place because of war, but the area was later partly redesigned and renamed EUR Esposizione Universale di Roma: Rome Universal Exhibition in the s to serve as a modern business district.
The line was finally opened in , and it is now the south part of the B Line. The A line opened in from Ottaviano to Anagnina stations, later extended in stages — to Battistini.
In the s, an extension of the B line was opened from Termini to Rebibbia. This underground network is generally reliable although it may become very congested at peak times and during events, especially the A line as it is relatively short.
The A and B lines intersect at Roma Termini station. B1 connects to line B at Piazza Bologna and has four stations over a distance of 3.
It will partly replace the existing Termini -Pantano rail line. It will feature full automated, driverless trains.
A fourth line, D line, is also planned. The first section was projected to open in and the final sections before , but due to the city's financial crisis the project has been put on hold.
Above-ground public transport in Rome is made up of a bus, tram and urban train network FR lines. The bus, tram, metro and urban railways network is run by Atac S.
Among the global cities , Rome is unique in having two sovereign entities located entirely within its city limits, the Holy See, represented by the Vatican City State, and the territorially smaller Sovereign Military Order of Malta.
The Vatican is an enclave of the Italian capital city and a sovereign possession of the Holy See , which is the Diocese of Rome and the supreme government of the Roman Catholic Church.
Rome therefore hosts foreign embassies to the Italian government, to the Holy See, to the Order of Malta and to certain international organizations.
John Lateran of which the President of the French Republic is ex officio the "first and only honorary canon ", a title held by the heads of the French state since King Henry IV of France.
It is sometimes classified as having sovereignty but does not claim any territory in Rome or anywhere else, hence leading to dispute over its actual sovereign status.
Rome is the seat of the so-called Polo Romano  made up by three main international agencies of the United Nations: Rome has traditionally been involved in the process of European political integration.
The Treaties of the EU are located in Palazzo della Farnesina , seat of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs , due the fact that the Italian government is the depositary of the treaties.
In the city hosted the signing of the Treaty of Rome , which established the European Economic Community predecessor to the European Union , and also played host to the official signing of the proposed European Constitution in July Rome is since 9 April exclusively and reciprocally twinned only with:.
Rome's other partner cities are: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the historical civilization originating in this city, see Ancient Rome.
For other uses, see Rome disambiguation. Capital of Italy in Italy. The white area in the centre is Vatican City.
History of Rome and Timeline of the city of Rome. Latins Italic tribe c. Mayor of Rome and Administrative subdivision of Rome. List of tourist attractions in Rome and List of streets in Rome.
List of ancient monuments in Rome and Ancient Roman architecture. List of parks and gardens in Rome. List of fountains in Rome and List of aqueducts in the city of Rome.
Talking statues of Rome. List of obelisks in Rome. List of bridges in Rome. Music of Rome and Events in Rome.
List of films set in Rome and List of films set in ancient Rome. Roman dialect and Latin. List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy.
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Archived from the original on 21 September Wenn die 40 Augen in der ersten Runde nicht erreicht werden, muss der Spieler eine Karte vom Ablagestapel aufnehmen und eine weitere Runde warten.
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Danach wird eine eigene Karte auf dem Ablagestapel abgelegt. Dies bedeutet, dass der nächste Spieler an der Reihe ist. Wenn ein anderer Spieler die auf den offenen Stapel abgelegt Karte haben möchte, muss er klopfen.
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Der Spieler, der als erstes alle Karten abgelegt hat oder die letzte Karte auf den Ablegestapel gelegt hat, gewinnt. Er bekommt 0 Punkte.
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